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7 essential principles of interior design

Пост обновлен апр. 12

After reading this article, you will be able to determine the basic design principles used by a designer to create a comfortable and non-trivial interior.


Let's start from the very beginning and understand what interior design is ...

Interior design is a process that forms the feeling of a harmonious space by manipulating its volume, and various finishes of all its surfaces.

Interior design is a multifaceted creative practice that collects and analyzes significant amounts of information, selects and implements a basic conceptual direction with all peripheral local solutions with the provision of all the necessary graphic documentation.


An interior designer, relying on certain knowledge of ecology, psychology, the basic laws of architecture and, taking into account the design features of all elements of the object, without violating the harmony of space, creatively develops and ennobles the existing environment.


Now that you already have some understanding of interior design, we can familiarize ourselves with the basic principles of creating interior design.



1. UNITY AND HARMONY


When creating an interior, you need to think of the house as a single whole space, consisting of separate rooms, interconnected by halls and staircases. Therefore, it is natural that the general style and idea extend to the whole house. This does not mean that all interior design elements should be the same. They should be combined and complementary to each other to enhance the whole composition .


When creating an interior, you need to think of the house as a single whole space, consisting of separate rooms, interconnected by halls and staircases. Therefore, it is natural that the general style and idea extend to the whole house. This does not mean that all interior design elements should be the same. They should be combined and complementary to each other to enhance the whole composition .
UNITY AND HARMONY in interior design. Designer: Jodie Miller, Myra Jewell, and Jesse Holloway


2. BALANCE


For those who are just looking at this article, balance can be briefly described as evenly distributing the attractiveness or visual weight of elements in a space. Three types of balance are defined: symmetrical, asymmetrical and radial.


Symmetrical balance is usually found in typical traditional interiors. It is determined by the presence of the same objects, repeating in the same positions on either side of the vertical axis. For example, you can observe in the interiors of old houses, where one half of the room is accurately mirrored on the other half. Symmetry in the interior creates a sense of calm and order. This kind of balance resembles a semblance of the structure of the human body, which is why we feel comfortable in such a balanced environment.


Symmetrical balance is usually found in typical traditional interiors. It is determined by the presence of the same objects, repeating in the same positions on either side of the vertical axis. For example, you can observe in the interiors of old houses, where one half of the room is accurately mirrored on the other half. Symmetry in the interior creates a sense of calm and order. This kind of balance resembles a semblance of the structure of the human body, which is why we feel comfortable in such a balanced environment.
Symmetrical balance in interior design. Designer: Kelly Wearstler


Asymmetric balance is widely used in modern practice. It is achieved with dissimilar objects that have the same visual weight or appeal. Asymmetrical balance is more messy and less contrived, but much more laborious to achieve harmony. Asymmetry implies movement and therefore the interior looks more dynamic.


Asymmetric balance is widely used in modern practice. It is achieved with dissimilar objects that have the same visual weight or appeal. Asymmetrical balance is more messy and less contrived, but much more laborious to achieve harmony. Asymmetry implies movement and therefore the interior looks more dynamic.
Asymmetric balance in interior design. Designer: Danielle Moudaber



Radial symmetry is when all design elements are positioned around a single center point. A common spiral staircase is an excellent example of radial balance implementation. Although this balance is not often used in interiors, it may well provide an interesting implementation option when used correctly.


Radial symmetry is when all design elements are positioned around a single center point. A common spiral staircase is an excellent example of radial balance implementation. Although this balance is not often used in interiors, it may well provide an interesting implementation option when used correctly.
Radial symmetry in interior design. Designer: Greg Natale


3. FOCAL POINT


Interior design's worst enemy is boredom.

A properly designed room, depending on its size, always has one or more focal points. The focus should be dominant, grabbing attention and arousing the viewer's interest. Thus, the focus should make a lasting impression and should become an integral part of the decor, related to style, color, scale or theme. A fireplace or flat-panel TV is the first thing that comes to most people's minds when we talk about the focal point of a room.


If your space lacks a natural focus, such as a fireplace, there is always the opportunity to create one by focusing on a specific piece of furniture, a piece of art, or a contrasting color spot in one area. In doing so, try to maintain balance so that the focus does not distract all attention.

A properly designed room, depending on its size, always has one or more focal points. The focus should be dominant, grabbing attention and arousing the viewer's interest. Thus, the focus should make a lasting impression and should become an integral part of the decor, related to style, color, scale or theme. A fireplace or flat-panel TV is the first thing that comes to most people's minds when we talk about the focal point of a room.
FOCAL POINT in interior design. Designer: buro 108

4. RHYTHM


Analyzing a piece of music, we would describe its rhythmic pattern. The essence of rhythm in interior design is visual repetition of form. Rhythm is defined as organized repetition or movement. To achieve a rhythm effect in your design, you need to think about design elements or decor in repetition, progression, transition, or contrast. Applying these visual mechanisms will enhance the impression of your space, directing the eye from one design element to the next.


Repetition is the use of the same element in space more than once. You can repeat a pattern, color, texture, line, or any other element, or even multiple elements.


Repetition is the use of the same element in space more than once. You can repeat a pattern, color, texture, line, or any other element, or even multiple elements.
RHYTHM in interior design. Repetition. Designer: Elizabeth Kimberly


Repetition is the use of the same element in space more than once. You can repeat a pattern, color, texture, line, or any other element, or even multiple elements.
RHYTHM in interior design. Repetition. Designer: Stacy Curran


Progression is an increase or decrease in one or more qualities of an element. The most obvious implementation of this technique is the grading of the element by size. Even placing several candles of different sizes on a regular tray is guaranteed to generate interest in its natural progression. Progression can also be achieved with the help of color. For example, in a monochromatic color scheme, where each element is slightly different from the other in a shade of the same color.


Progression is an increase or decrease in one or more qualities of an element. The most obvious implementation of this technique is the grading of the element by size. Even placing several candles of different sizes on a regular tray is guaranteed to generate interest in its natural progression. Progression can also be achieved with the help of color. For example, in a monochromatic color scheme, where each element is slightly different from the other in a shade of the same color.
RHYTHM in interior design. Progression. Designer: MongDecor

The transition is more difficult to define. Unlike repetition or progression, the transition tends to be smoother when the eye naturally glides from one area to another. The most common transition is an arched doorway or winding path where the eye glides smoothly along a curved line.


The transition is more difficult to define. Unlike repetition or progression, the transition tends to be smoother when the eye naturally glides from one area to another. The most common transition is an arched doorway or winding path where the eye glides smoothly along a curved line.
RHYTHM in interior design, transition.


Contrast. It's pretty straightforward. Placing elements that contradict each other, such as black and white pillows on the couch. This is the hallmark of this kind of rhythm in design.


Rhythm in design can also be realized by contrasting shapes, such as circles and squares used together.

Contrast can be quite stark, and is often used to liven up a space. But, be careful not to spoil your painstaking work with excessive contrast using other mechanisms and techniques.


Contrast. It's pretty straightforward. Placing elements that contradict each other, such as black and white pillows on the couch. This is the hallmark of this kind of rhythm in design. Rhythm in design can also be realized by contrasting shapes, such as circles and squares used together. Contrast can be quite stark, and is often used to liven up a space.
RHYTHM in interior design. Contrast. Designer: Sarah Richardson


5. SCALE AND PROPORTION.


Size and shape go hand in hand in interior design. Proportion is related to the ratio of one design element to another or one element to a whole. Scale is related to the size of one object relative to another.


Size and shape go hand in hand in interior design. Proportion is related to the ratio of one design element to another or one element to a whole. Scale is related to the size of one object relative to another.
SCALE AND PROPORTION in interior design. Designer: Peggy Straley

6. COLOR


One way to create a theme or storyline for interior design is through the thoughtful use of color. Color schemes are a great way to combine all rooms into one space. You can choose three or four colors and apply them in different shades throughout your home.


One way to create a theme or storyline for interior design is through the thoughtful use of color. Color schemes are a great way to combine all rooms into one space. You can choose three or four colors and apply them in different shades throughout your home.
Color in interior design. Designer: Casa Decor Madrid


7. DETAILS


Another important element of interior design that definitely needs to be paid attention to are details. Everything from the fringes on the lampshade, the color of the laces on the scattered pillows to the light switches and knobs on the wardrobe need to be considered.


Unlike color, people find details boring. And so they are sometimes neglected, if not completely ignored. Colors have a definite impact on the ambiance you want to create when decorating your interior. If color expresses the spirit and life of the whole idea, then the details are the most important auxiliary tool for the completeness of the implementation of the interior design.


The details should not be deliberately protruded, but carefully considered and skillfully selected to improve the overall sense of harmony of the space.

Another important element of interior design that definitely needs to be paid attention to are details. Everything from the fringes on the lampshade, the color of the laces on the scattered pillows to the light switches and knobs on the wardrobe need to be considered.
DETAILS in interior design. Designer: Valentina Ptitsa (Валентина Птица)

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